Tuesday, December 10, 2019
Hawthorne was very interested in creating an authentic past exhibiting the history of the colonies and his Puritan ancestors. Hawthorne invites the reader to relate The Scarlet Letter to contemporary politics of the 1840Ã¢â¬â¢s. Ã¢â¬Å"the past is not deadÃ¢â¬ - it lives on in the custom house, and other contemporary political institutions. Hawthorne wrote The Scarlet Letter when he was recently pulled from his administrative position, as a self-proclaimed Ã¢â¬Å"politically dead manÃ¢â¬ . In the opening of the novel we wait for Hester to come out of the prison. We overhear others muttering about her offences, there is very little sympathy for Hester. In The Scarlet Letter, the fault shared by the Puritan settlers, the women outside the prison and Arthur Dimmesdale most of all, is devout hypocrisy: they naively imagine that sin, or Ã¢â¬Å"human frailty and sorrow,Ã¢â¬ can be avoided through denial and pretense. Chillingworth becomes an increasingly diabolical villain by his own deception. We will write a custom essay sample on The Scarlett Letter Criticism or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page On the other hand, Hester Prynne wears the sign of shame on her chest and cannot feign nnocence; consequently she has a greater potential for salvation. Hawthorne routinely brings up Paradise Lost in order to reassert its vision of mankind as fallen, and its poetic dramatization of Adam and EvenÃ¢â¬â¢s fall and expulsion from Eden. They fell with the world all before them, just like Hester was let out of prison with all to see. She seems to have a better chance at redemption than her hypocritical neighbors. The way that Hawthorne alludes to Paradise Lost introduces the theme of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s sexuality and their temptation to sin. There are many symbols given throughout the read by Hawthorne, but the most important being the scarlet letter Ã¢â¬Å"AÃ¢â¬ on HesterÃ¢â¬â¢s chest. This symbol takes many different meanings, to the townspeople the letter Ã¢â¬Å"AÃ¢â¬ has the effects of a spell, which isolates her from society and leaves her alone with her sins. As Hawthrone describes it in Ã¢â¬Å"The Custom House,Ã¢â¬ modern life has a dulling effect on the mind and spirit. In his fiction, he wants to create a richer and more challenging world. Just as the meaning of HesterÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"AÃ¢â¬ gradually expands for the townspeople, meaning not just Ã¢â¬Å"AdulteryÃ¢â¬ but also Ã¢â¬Å"AbleÃ¢â¬ and perhaps Ã¢â¬Å"Angel. Ã¢â¬ The Scarlett Letter has the vagueness that opens possibilities of meaning for its readers. The ambiguity of HesterÃ¢â¬â¢s scarlet letter Ã¢â¬Å"AÃ¢â¬ has been used as a textbook case to illustrate the difference between two types of imagery in writing: allegory and symbolism. Allegory shown through a characters name that directly indicates its meaning Ã¢â¬Å"Young Goodman BrownÃ¢â¬ . Symbolism on the other hand requires more personal interpretation. The Ã¢â¬Å"AÃ¢â¬ could suggest a multitude of things, but it depends on the reader and how they interpret its symbol. The narrator creates multiple interpretations of events throughout the novel. This entices the reader to read between the lines and dig deep into the writing. Overall, Hawethorne leaves plenty of opportunity for self-interpretation throughout the novel and introduces themes and motifs with allusions to other works of the time period. History is made prevalent throughout the novel, and evidently impacts the plot because of HawthorneÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to include it frequently.
Monday, December 2, 2019
Communalism could be defined as a consciously shared religious heritage, which becomes the dominant form of identity for a given segment of society (Jones 1968). It mainly occurred between Muslims and Hindus. The autocratic Hindus in India insisted that the nation should be based on the Hindutva ideology, which are Hindi language, Hindu belief and Hindustan land. However, Hindutva ideology should not be the only cause of the rise of communalism in India since Muslims and Hindus had lived together for over than centuries. Colonialism took part on creating tensions between Muslim and Hindus. In addition, political clash had raised the tensions between them. In this research paper, I will prove that the rise of communalism in India was not just because of the Hindutva ideology and the Hindutva movement but also because of the British involvement and intervention in Indian society. Furthermore, the Muslims also raised the tension by making themselves apart from the Hindus and created conflicts against the Hindus. We will write a custom essay sample on The Rise of Communalism in India or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Hinduism as a benchmark of Nationalism Hindu was the belief of the ancestors of India. Hindu had been the beliefs of the ancestry of Indians for millenniums, and has become an inherent part of the Indian culture, for instance, the caste system. Hinduism and Nationalism is inseparable as Hindu had became tradition of Indians. In fact, 80. 5% of the India populations are Hindus, and clearly shows Hindu dominated India. The emergence of the communalism was indicated by the outbreak of Hindutva ideology. Hindutva ideology came up in the late 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s by Savarkar, which means Ã¢â¬Å"HindunessÃ¢â¬ . The Hindu nationalists believed that Motherland India is the land of Hindus, meaning if you are not a Hindu, you are not Indian. Indians should speak Hindi, prayed to the Hindu gods and have the same interests with the other Hindus. Hindu has become the measure of Nationalism (Snehi 2003). Anyone who is not a Hindu welcomed as a guest, and they addressed this to the Muslims. The Hindus believed that ever since the Muslims came to India, they had spread a religion that was not in tune with the Indians, and when the Muslims ruled the India, they intended to wipe off Hindu race and replaced it with Islam (Snehi 2003). When the Mughal Empire fell apart, it indicated that the Muslims power in India fell too, the Hindus began to move. They felt that Hindu is their original religion and that Indians are Hindus, not Muslims. Hence, Hindutva ideology was adopted by the Hindus, and started to hate and pledge revenge to the Muslims. There were attempts to wipe the Muslims in India especially in the northern part of India, for example, Baranas riot in 1809. The Hindu extremism intensified after the political parties in India began to promote the Hindutva ideology as well. Hindutva ideology adopted by the political parties such as: Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) and Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). Hindutva ideology adopted by both political parties in India with the domination of Hindu in India had promoted the communalism. It was a bummer for the Muslims because they had less political power than the Hindus. Many attempts based on the Hindu Nationalism ideology done by Hindu political party such as BJP, for instance, the uniform civil code. It was a disaster for the Muslims because the law proposed by BJP was all in favor of Hindus, for example, the divorce and marriage codes based on Hindu. The Muslims were forced to follow the rules if they want to stay in India. Furthermore, BJPÃ¢â¬â¢s ideological stance had caused the demolition of the Babri mosque in 1992 (Nandrajog 2010). Hatred between Muslims and Hindus is unavoidable and inevitable. This event had raised the tensions between Hindus and Muslims until now. Although the Hindu supremacy alongside with the Hindutva ideology has clearly shown the communalism in India, however this would not happen if the British did not intervene and sow the seeds hatred, and if the Muslims did not raise the tension a while ago. The British involvement The British had stayed in India for a long time, with the main objective of trading goods. As time passed by, the British realized that they had a large power in India and began to conquer regions and controlled it. The British set up education system in India to educate the people. Yet, because of the MuslimsÃ¢â¬â¢ pride with the Mughal Empire, they refused every British policy including the education system. On the flip side, the Hindus used the opportunity to make them educated. Refer to Kumar (1990): However, because of their general grouse against the British government, the Muslims did not take English language kindly. Thus this led the Muslims remained backward, their literary growth was stopped and they lapsed into ignorance and backwardness. On the flip side, Hindus took this seriously and began to make progress. As a result many Hindus were qualified to work in the administrative jobs. Hindus were far greater than the Muslims, created a sense of frustration among the Muslims. Jealousy of the Muslims against the Hindus had shaped communalism a while ago. Thus, communalism has been shaped during the British involvement and intervention in India. Moreover, referred to Justice Katju statements in Adil Mohd (2012) work: As far as the question you asked about how was India before 1857, before 1857 there was no communal problem, there were yes religious differences but not communal problems. There is no history of and such communal conflict. It indicates that there must be an event that changed the Indian society, which I suppose was the British involvement and intervention. Kumar (1990) also writes: The unity of the Hindus and Muslims was once a big trouble for the British during the uprising in 1857-1858. The mutiny in 1857 had changed everything in India. The idea of Divide and Rule came up to avoid further unity. The policy had divided each community, especially between the Muslims and Hindus. This division has led Muslims and Hindus oppose each other, which helped the British maintain their control and position in India. Kumar (1990) explained further the British intervention in shaping communalism: Sir Syeh Ahmad played a vital role in shaping communalism of the Muslims against the Hindus. He belonged to the Mughal official family, and entered the British East India Company service. He believed the MuslimsÃ¢â¬â¢ backwardness lay in the traditional narrow-mindedness should be eliminated and therefore he wanted the Muslims to acquire the Western style of education and thus to widen their outlook. He made the relationship between the British and the Muslims strong, and the Muslims tend to be loyal to the BritishÃ¢â¬ ¦ His views were not communal at all at first, but then the efforts he made in order to win the favour of the British rulers pushed him and his Aligarh Movement into being communalÃ¢â¬ ¦ Till the founding of Indian National Congress, he was a true nationalist. But with the founding of INC, he began to be anti-Hindu communalist. In his opinion INC was a Hindu institution, and he had became suspicious and jealous of the Hindu advancement. Not being satisfied with this, he then found Indian Patriotic Association in 1888 with the support of the British to oppose the National movement. It shows that Sir Syed Ahmad was the British puppet to oppose the National movement and the British were the one that sow the seeds of hatred among the Muslims against the Hindus. By 1906, sponsored by British Raj, All Muslim League formed. The British sponsored the creation of communal party. Moreover, The British sow seeds of poisons in the minds of Hindus and Muslims, and caused a lot of clash between them until 1947 where the Muslims, led by All League Muslims, separated themselves. Political clash between Muslims and Hindus in India The founding of All-India Muslim League was emerged from Aligarh Movement. Aligarh MovementÃ¢â¬â¢s objective was to promote a modern education for the Muslims. Later on, the goal has changed to protect and to unite the Muslims in India. When the Hindu extremism began to intensify, All-India Muslim League became as a mean of MuslimsÃ¢â¬â¢ voice. The politic parties based on religion in India did not unite both opposition but make it far worse. Realizing the facts that Indian National Congress was a Hindu Institution, the communalism in Muslims side began to rise. When the Muslim League failed to win representative seats in the 1937 elections, it became clear that the Muslims had less power in India. 1930, the leader of AIML, who was Muhammad Iqbal demanded the partition of Muslim state in India and then the two-nation theory became popular among the Muslims. Under Mohammed Ali Jinnah, they demanded separation between Muslims and Hindus with two-nation theory. The theory stated that India should be separated into two regions; Hindu India and Islam India. He also persuaded Muslims that a Hindu-dominated India would never, as he put it, give them Ã¢â¬Å"justiceÃ¢â¬ (Murphey 2009). The idea was also that autonomous area of Muslims to be own country but connected to India economically. The political clash between INC and All India Muslim League increased the tension between the Hindus and the Muslims. Direct Action Day in Calcutta, August 1946 was one of the consequences of the political clash. This was the day when the Muslim League had planned general strike to protest rejection of the June 16th Cabinet Mission Plan by the Congress Party and to assert its demand for a separate homeland during the Indian Freedom Struggle against the British Raj. Almost 4,000 people lost their lives within 72 hours, and raised the hatred between Muslims and Hindus (N. P. ) The partition of India in July 1947, which created a new nation Pakistan, was inevitable, yet created conflicts rather than peace between Muslims and Hindus. Almost 2 millions died because of the migration. The vivisection of Mother India angered Hindus, making communalism on Hindu side rise. Muslims who moved to Pakistan or Hindus who moved to India became the victims of the partition of India. In the conclusion, it is really clear that the British involvement intervention in India and the political clash between Muslims Hindus has led the communalism to rise in India, even until now. Even though the extremeness of Hindus and the rise of Hindutva ideology movement was the main cause of the communalism in India, it would not happen if the British did not trigger the fire of hatred between Muslims Hindus and if the Muslims did not cause further political tension.
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Dog and Cat Names in German Hunde- und Katzennamen One of the questions that German teachers hear most frequently (besides why is a table masculine?) is: What are some popular German names for dogs/cats? But Germans dont always use German names for their pets, any more than they do for their children! Although there are German versions of names like Fido, Spot or Tabby, just as those English names are fairly uncommon for pets today, so are many typical German pet names. Dog names like Bello or Hasso are viewed as clichÃ ©s. Very few dogs in Germany answer to those names, or any German name, today. Ã «Der ZooÃ » (tsoh) is a zoo, but itsalso the German word for a pet store. If you dont believe me, look at this edited sample list of suggested dog names taken from a German Hundenamen Web site:Ã Aida, Ajax, Alice, Amy, Angel, Angie, Aron, Babe, Baby, Bandit, Barney, Beauty, Benny, Berry, Billy, Bingo, Blacky, Blue, Buffy, Butch, Calvin, Candy, Chaos, Charlie, Cheese, Chelsea, Cheyenne, Cindy, Cookie, Criss-Cross, CurlyÃ andÃ Curtis. And thats just taken from the A-C section! Yes, I left out some of the more Germanic names from the original list, but you can see the Germanic names in our ownÃ HaustiernamenÃ list. The point is that exotic English and other non-German names are popular with German pet owners. Even the detective hero of the bestselling German cat mystery novelÃ Felidaewas named Francis, not Franz. Most German name lists for pets contain about 90 percent non-German names. But you probably would prefer a German name for your dog or cat.Ã In our list you can choose a name that suits your tastes and your pet. You may wish to use the name of a famous literary or otherÃ German:Ã Kafka,Ã Goethe,Ã FreudÃ (orÃ Siggi/Sigmund) andÃ NietzscheÃ are some possibilities. Prefer music? How aboutÃ AmadeusÃ orÃ MozartÃ or evenÃ Beethoven? The names of German pop singers likeÃ FalcoÃ (who was Austrian),Ã Udo LindenbergÃ orÃ NenaÃ are also popular for pets. Or perhaps youd like the name of a figure out of German literature. PerhapsÃ SiegfriedÃ (m.) orÃ KriemhildÃ (f.) from theÃ NibelungenliedÃ or GoethesÃ FaustÃ versusÃ Mephistopholes. On the lighter side you could go withÃ Idefix, the dog in the popular European Asterix cartoon series, the rotundÃ ObelixÃ character or the heroÃ AsterixÃ himself. Then you may wish to have a good old Germanic name or word with a certain meaning:Ã AdalhardÃ (noble strong),Ã BaldurÃ (bold),Ã BlitzÃ (lightning, fast),Ã GerfriedÃ (spear/peace),Ã GerhardÃ (strong spear),Ã HugoÃ (smart),Ã HeidiÃ (based on fem. names containingÃ heidÃ orheide;Ã AdelheidÃ noble one),Ã Traude/TrauteÃ (dear, trusted) orÃ ReinhardÃ (decisive/strong) are just some options. Although few Germans today would be caught dead with such names, theyre still great pet names. Other categories for pet names include movie characters (Strolch, Tramp in The Lady and the Tramp); colors (BarbarossaÃ [red],Ã Lakritz[e] [licorice, black],Ã Silber [silver]; precipitationÃ SchneeflockeÃ [snowflake]); or drinks (Whisky,Ã Wodka).
Saturday, November 23, 2019
Lucille Balls Feminism in The Lucy Show Sitcom Title: The Lucy Show Years Aired: 1962Ã¢â¬â1968 Stars: Lucille Ball, Vivian Vance, Gale Gordon, Mary Jane Croft, many celebrities who guest-starred as themselves Feminist focus? Women, particularly Lucille Ball, can tell a complete story without husbands. The feminism in The Lucy Show comes from the fact that it was a sitcom focused on a woman, and that woman didnt always act in ways considered ladylike.Ã Lucille Ball played a widow, Lucy Carmichael, and Vivian Vance, for part of the showÃ¢â¬â¢s run, played her divorced best friend, Vivian Bagley. Notably, the main characters were women without husbands. Sure, the male characters included a banker in charge of LucyÃ¢â¬â¢s trust fund and a recurring-role boyfriend, but shows that revolved around a woman without a husband were not common before The Lucy Show. Who Loves Lucy This Time? Lucille Ball was already a famous, extremely talented actress and comedian when The Lucy Show began. During the 1950s she had starred with then-husband Desi Arnaz on I Love Lucy, one of the most popular TV shows of all time, where she and Vivian Vance engaged in countless antics as Lucy and Ethel. In the 1960s, the comic duo reunited on The Lucy Show as Lucy and Vivian. Vivian was the first long-running divorced woman on primetime television. The original title of the series was to beÃ The Lucille Ball Show, but that was rejected by CBS.Ã Vivian Vance insisted that her character name be Vivian, tried of being called Ethel from her time withÃ I Love Lucy. Not a World Without Men Finding a little feminism in The Lucy Show does not mean there were no men. Lucy and Vivian did interact with plenty of male characters, including men they dated. However, the 1960s were an interesting time in TV history- a decade that saw inventive plot lines, experimentation outside the nuclear family model and the shift from black and white to color TV, among other developments. Here was Lucille Ball, proving again that a woman could carry a show. Gone were the I Love Lucy plots that so often revolved around tricking or hiding something from the husbands. Successful Women The Lucy Show was a top-ten ratings success as the women brought laughs to millions. Years later, Lucille Ball was asked why newer sitcoms werenÃ¢â¬â¢t as good as her classic sitcoms, despite a wider range of material. Lucille Ball answered that they were trying to make comedy out of reality- and who would want to listen to that?Ã¢â¬ While she may have rejected abortion and social unrest as sitcom material, Lucille Ball in many ways IS the feminism of The Lucy Show. She was a powerful woman in Hollywood who could do anything she wanted, for years, and who responded to the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s liberation movement with a voice and viewpoint that were unique, decidedly brave and already liberated. Production Company and Series Evolution Desi Arnaz, Lucille Balls husband until 1960, ran Desilu Productions until 1963 when Ball bought his shares and became the first female CEO of any major television production corporation.Ã Arnaz, despite the divorce, was instrumental in talking the networks into taking on the new show.Ã Arnaz was the executive producer of fifteen of the first thirty episodes. In 1963, Arnaz resigned as head of Desilu Productions. Lucille Ball became President of the company, and Arnaz was also replaced as executive producer ofÃ The Lucy Show.Ã Ã The show was filmed the next season in color rather than black and white, though it was broadcast in black and white until 1965.Ã Cast changes introduced Gale Gordon and lost several male characters. (Gale Gordon had appeared on radio with Lucille Ball in a showÃ My Favorite HusbandÃ that evolved intoÃ I Love Lucy, and had been offered the role onÃ I Love LucyÃ of Fred Mertz.) In 1965, differences over pay, commuting, and creative control led to a split between Lucille Ball and Vivian Vance, and Vance left the series.Ã She appeared at the end of the run for some guest appearances. By 1966, the children of Lucy Carmichael, her trust fund, and much of the previous history of the show had disappeared, and she played the part as a Los Angeles based single woman.Ã When Vivian returned as a married woman for a few guest appearances, their children were not mentioned. Lucille Ball founded Lucille Ball Productions in 1967, during the life ofÃ The Lucy Show.Ã Ã Her new husband, Gary Morton, was executive producer ofÃ The Lucy ShowÃ from 1967 on. Even the sixth season of the show was very popular, ranked #2 in the Nielsen ratings. She ended the series after the sixth season, and began a new show,Ã Heres Lucy, with her children Lucie Arnaz and Desi Arnaz, Jr., playing key roles. Pregnancy on Television Lucille Ball, in her original series I Love LucyÃ (1951Ã¢â¬â1957) with her husband Desi Arnaz, had broken ground when, against the advice of the television network and ad agencies, her real-life pregnancy was integrated into the show.Ã For the seven episodes with her pregnant, the censorship code of the time forbid the use of the term pregnant and instead permitted expectingÃ (or, in Desis Cuban accent, spectin).
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Carl Rogers - Research Paper Example In his early years, Rogers was a very shy and awkward child. He often went into tears for no reason and he was prone to sickness early. His brothers teased him often and made jokes about him. He grew up in a home where his father was often absent which meant that he grew close to his mother. As a young child, Rogers was the baby of the family and he remained the baby until he was five years old. As her grew older, his health became very strong. His older siblings paid special attention to him now and they taught him to read when he was four years old (Kirschenbaum, 1979, p. 2-3). He began to read everything he could find in his parents library which included several volumes of the bible and many other titles. Eventually, he began to entertain his brothers with the fantastic stories that he made up himself (Kirshenbaum, p. 4). As Rogers grew up he lived in many different places including a farm and the suburbs. Adulthood was fun for Rogers because he found it very easy to make friends. He had high energy and his health was excellent. These two factors allowed him to make journeys around the world. These journeys gave him a broader sense of the world around him early in his life. Central to Rogers early years was Calvinism which was the religious background his parents raised him in; eventually his mother would become a fundamentalist. By the time he entered college, he had changed to a more liberally religious viewpoint which led to fights in his home (Kirschenbaum, 1979). He would eventually develop ideas in existentialism as continued to study religion. As he developed his study of religion and other disciplines he began to believe that "good works were more important than ritual or doctrine in Christianity "Kirschenbaum, p. 29). In his view it was more important for people to take responsibility for their own actions than to rely on god to do something for them. He traveled to the Orient for some of his study and when he
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Managing Financial Resources in Health and Social Care - Essay Example The essay presents how various aspects of financial resources should be managed in health and social care. It is the responsibility of the management to ensurethat funding is available to meet the daily needs of the organization. In the cause of events, finance may be needed in order to invest in equipment stocks, pay employees, equipment and cater for sales made on credit. If not well taken care of, sources of finance may end up dry; this may make an institution to be in financial jeopardy. Financial control plays a critical role in helping the business meets its objectives.As a manager, my role is to ensure that all these are achieved. Financial shortfalls arise when an organization cannot pay its bills on time due to lack of cash. As a manager I have been oriented to be proactive about financial shortfalls while upholding an account for contingency all the time. Through review of BUPAÃ¢â¬â¢s cash flow for the last six months, the company is capable to determine the cash flow in terms of expenditure and income; this aids the company in reserving cash needed for purposes of expenditure for the subsequent six months. After realizing the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s assets, the company has a well-planned schedule on how to pay its suppliers to avoid conflicts with respective suppliers. The company also encourages early payments from the customer by offering discounts on such payments; this increases the chances of early cash availability. Payment of suppliers on a scheduled basis helps the company to avoid shortfalls since suppliers get their due especially when the funds are available. Fraud is an obvious threat to organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s resources and therefore must be a concern to all employers and employees within a specific jurisdiction (Petrucelli 2002). In the event of fraud, managers are expected to set good example by conforming fully to procedures and controls. As a manger, quick action is necessary to avoid any further loss bearing in mind that this is just an al legation and until the outcome of investigation is determined. Movement and preservation of evidence to a safe place or location is vital where practicable. Both internal auditor and director of finance are supposed to be notified. Prompt and vigorous investigation should be carried out; after that, report findings should be forwarded to both internal auditor and director of finance. If possible consult with the appropriate departments concerned or involved. Notification to security agents should be carried out by the manager following consultation with the executives of the BUPA at National Director Level. As some may put it, coming up with a budget may be easy, sticking to it is the hard part. A well planned budget has little no impact without willpower and close monitoring (Amey 1979). A system for recording expenses and producing reports should be in place. As a manger, insisting on regular monitoring reports is way of ensuring that whatever was projected in the budgets is follo wed to the latter. Through monitoring reports, it makes it easy to determine actual spending at a particular period of the month compared to what was projected in the budget. The level of expenditure should be documented and clear reports drawn from them; the concerned departments should be informed so as to get their input on the same. The audit committee should review the reports. After conclusion, there should be immediate action taken
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Investigating the Ratio Between Poly-Vinyl Alcohol Essay Introduction: Poly-Vinyl Alcohol (PVA) is a water-soluble synthetic polymer that will be used as one element to form the well know bouncing ball, along with Sodium Borate (borax), which has a variety of uses because of its weak base. PVA is ideal for this experiment because it is odorless, nontoxic, has high tensile strength and flexibility. The binder characteristics of PVA offer excellent adhesion to porous, water-absorbent surfaces. A local manufacturer wants to find a material to create a simple toy: a bouncing ball. Research institutions collaborate with local manufacturers and provide professional assistance with their projects. In trying to create a bouncing ball, one must find the appropriate ratio of the two that forms a solid for which have the properties that a bouncing ball consist. It is important that we find the correct ratio so that it is perfect shape, texture, and saltation. The main property that we are testing for is the products bounciness. Figure 1: The reaction of PVA and borax. In the above illustration, two PVA molecules are shown being cross-linked by a hydrated borax molecule. Four molecules of water are also produced. Hypothesis: In this experiment, I predict that if more Poly-vinyl Alcohol over Sodium Borate, then the appropriate bouncing solid will be formed. Methods: With the supplied solutions of PVA and sodium borate, my group and I took 100 mL of each solution. We measured out different ratios repeatedly to find the appropriate ratio. Start with a happy medium of 10mL (PVA) and 20mL (Sodium Borate) and examined the results. The results are not accurate so you have to test the extremes and then examine which way to continue. In my experiment, more of PVA is needed and less of sodium borate is needed. Continue testing until you get closer and closer to an adequate ratio with a good solid product, which we can to the conclusion that 4:1 as well 7:1 worked as good ratios to further test. We tested the ratio by cooling one and heating the other. By cooling the product it was able to harden and somewhat stay in shape. On the other hand, by heating it it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t keep its form thus unable to be bounced. So to harden the heated product follow the theory of heating (50Ã °c) to then immediately cooling (12Ã °c) the product; this helps to harden the product inside out thus allow the product to keep its shape as well as bounce like a true manufactured bouncy ball. Results: Ratios Ã¢â¬â table 1 Trial(s)| Amount of PVA| Amount of Sodium Borate| Ratio| Description| 1| 10 mL| 20 mL| 1:2| slimy| 2| 3 mL| 30 mL| 1:10| watery| 3| 30 mL| 3 mL| 10:1| play-dough| 4| 20 mL| 1 mL| 20:1| foamy| 5| 10 mL| 2 mL| 5:1| rubbery| 6| 8 mL| 2 mL| 4:1| slightly crumbly| -| 12 mL| 3 mL| 4:1**| harder/shaped| 7| 15 mL| 5 mL| 3:1| slimy/not keeping form| 8| 7 mL| 1 mL| 7:1| too slimy| -| 14 mL| 2 mL| 7:1**| harder/shaped| Note: ** multiple tests (heated, cooled, heated and cooled) Bouncing Height Ã¢â¬â table 2 Ratio| Iced (12Ã °c)| Heated (50Ã °c)| Heated then Cooled| 4:1| 8-10 cm| -| 30-32 cm| 7:1| 9-11 cm| -| 19-20 cm| pH 8 weakly alkaline Discussion: A local manufacturer wanted my team to find a suitable ratio to create the well-known toy, the bouncing ball. In efforts to do so, our TA supplied PVA, along with sodium borate, to the students. Each group could only acquire so much at a time. My group acquired 100 mL of both PVA and sodium borate. To start, we did a 1:2 ratio just as a test to see if it would solidify into a ball. As a result, it came out slimy so we tried to up the amount of sodium borate (1:10 ratio), which lead us to a more watery product. Since increasing the amount of borax lead us in the wrong direction, we increased PVA and lowered sodium borate to a 10:1 ratio. This ratio gave us a play-dough outcome, which was closer to what we needed. Decreasing the amount of solution to a 5:1 ratio, we moved even closer. The 5:1 was starting to feel rubbery. After seeing how close we were with the 5:1, we tried the 4:1. Our 4:1 and 7:1 were fairly similar and the closet to our projected outcome but it was not quite there yet. So, by heating and cooling each result gave us a somewhat reasonable result. The result of cooling our 7:1 product for 30 minutes was a harder but still lacked shape as well as the 4:1 product that was cooled for 30 minutes. The 7:1 result was able to bounce 9-11 cm in height while the 4:1 product was able to bounce to a similar height of 8-10 cm. Both products heated would not bounce or keep form, so we immediately put both on ice. As most people should know, with the rapid temperature (from hot to cold), it causes an object to harden from the inside out. So, with this theory in mind, after the heated products failed we placed them on ice and let it sit there and harden. The products hardened over a 15-minute time frame and we could clearly see the difference between these and the rest of our trials. The heated then cooled product for the 7:1 ratio could bounce to a height interval of 19-20 cm, while the product from the 4:1 ratio could bounce to a height interval of 30-32 cm. Ultimately, we have to accept the best product for the manufacturer to mass produce and market so that the most money can be made. From the data collected, the ratio 4:1 is the closest to form a perfect product (bouncy ball) simply because it bounced higher which meant it was harder as well as kept its shape. But, from this experiment, we can conclude that either just cooling the ratio or by heating then immediately cooling the ratio product creates an adequate bouncy ball that when dropped it bounces like a true bouncy ball. References: Experiment 2. Polymers:. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Sept. 2012. http://matse1.matse.illinois.edu/polymers/e.html. Polyvinyl Alcohol. Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 26 Aug. 2012. Web. 19 Sept. 2012. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polyvinyl_alcohol. Borax. Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 18 Sept. 2012. Web. 19 Sept. 2012. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Borax.